Imaging and Diagnosis


A number of imaging technologies with overlapping capabilities are available, including echocardiography, cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging, nuclear cardiology, X-ray computed tomography, positron emission tomography and vascular ultrasound.

Imaging technologies play a substantial role in the implantation of pacemakers and implantable cardioverter-defibrillators, cardiac resynchronisation therapy and catheter ablation procedures.

Related Articles


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Exercise Training and Heart Failure: A Review of the Literature

Jacqueline H Morris, Leway Chen,


Citation: Cardiac Failure Review 2019;5(1):57–61.

The New Heart Failure Association Definition of Advanced Heart Failure

Marco Metra, Elisabetta Dinatolo, Nicolò Dasseni,


Citation: Cardiac Failure Review 2019;5(1):5–8.

The Prognostic Role of CMR Tissue Characterisation in HF

Robert D Adam, James Shambrook, Andrew S Flett,

Citation: Cardiac Failure Review 2017;3(2):86–96.

The Role of Automated 3D Echocardiography for Left Ventricular Ejection…

Ernest Spitzer, Ben Ren, Felix Zijlstra,

Citation: Cardiac Failure Review 2017;3(2):97–101.